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Tuesday, January 1, 2013

How Britain Ended Slavery Around the Globe by Stephen Krasner - The Globalist

 Around the Globe 

by Stephen Krasner - The Globalist

s a first step, Britain outlawed slavery for its own flag vessels in 1807. As a consequence, during the Napoleonic Wars, slave ships from enemy states were captured.Between 1808 and 1869 the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron seized over 1,600 slave ships and freed about 150,000 Africans

Penal labour and the War on Drugs What better way to capture a slave is to tell him what he or she may eat, drink, smoke, or otherwise ingest. These captives are not criminals anymore than those who refuse to be told what they may read, write, think, or believe.

 The people who founded our country were smugglers, gun owners, and tax resistors. These freedom fighters did not recognize the authority of any government to interfere with honest trade, peaceful behavior, or the right to bear arms. Ultimately, they refused to be stopped and searched for guns and contraband. These facts are the origin of the Second and Fourth Amendments, the heart and soul of this Republic. Thus, in addition to being violent criminals and terrorists, drug fighters and illegalizers are also traitors. 
  • Penal labour
    By the way, the major drugs in the world -- alcohol, cocaine, morphine (heroin), and cannabis -- are valuable medicines which have served mankind for centuries. Medicinal plants and extracts are also the safest drugs. Preparations of coca, opium, cannabis, and alcohol have been safely produced and consumed for centuries. These much-valued herbal medicines also have religeous, ceremonial, and recreational uses. They belong in every home and medicine kit unless the homeowner chooses otherwise. 
  • Sexual slavery
  • Sweatshop 
  • Wage slavery

Ending Slavery in America The War On Drugs
Revolutionary France abolished slavery in 1794, but it was restored by Napoleon in the French colonies more than a decade later after his subversion of the French Revolution. Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory, establishing the second republic in the western hemisphere. Britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies in 1807, and the United States followed in 1808. Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833, the French colonies abolished it 15 years later, and slavery in the United States was abolished in 1865, after the American Civil War, with the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
How Britain Ended Slavery Around the Globe by Stephen Krasner - The Globalist:The abolition of the slave trade was a triumph for human rights and freedom — made possible in large measure by the commitment and power of Great Britain.

Slavery and the slave trade

Slavery is defined as the buying and selling of people as commodities. Slaves had no rights, being the property of their owners.

 The frequent rebellions by enslaved Africans and evidence of the appalling conditions endured by them during and after transportation led to growing support for the demands to abolish the slave trade.
Slave Gang

"We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer".[23]

David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873),
slave Gang

Slave Gang

As soon as Europeans began to settle in America, in the early 16th century, they imported enslaved Africans to work for them. As European settlement grew, so did the demand for enslaved people. Over the next 300 years more than 11 million enslaved people were transported across the Atlantic from Africa to America and the West Indies.

Slave Diagram
Slave Plan
Many other cities also grew rich on the profits of industries which depended on slave-produced materials

The ships that took slaves from West Africa could conveniently return to Britain loaded with tobacco, sugar, cotton and other American commodities. The trade in slaves was abolished by a British Act of Parliament in 1807, but the condition of slavery itself wasn’t outlawed in Britain till 1838.
After the 1745 Rebellion many defeated Scots Jacobites fled the country to the West Indies to become slave masters on plantations. They were also attracted to the American South, where states such as Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia were developing plantation economies. The Lowlander Robert Burns was one of many others tempted by such prospects: in 1786 the author of ‘A man’s a man for a’ that’ almost emigrated to Jamaica.

Glasgow’s ‘Tobacco Lords’ and merchants profited from the slave trade, as did the merchants of London, Liverpool and Bristol.

Robert Wedderburn (1762-1835) was the son of a Scottish slave owner in Jamaica and his slave mistress Rosanna; he became one of the first black activists in Britain. Joseph Knight was another slave, born in Africa but sold in Jamaica to a Scottish ‘owner’. In 1769 his master took him to Britain, where he ran away from him. When his ‘owner’ then had him arrested, the sheriff of Perth set him free because ‘the regulations in Jamaica, concerning slaves, do not extend to this kingdom’. This view was upheld by the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
Part of the Rhinebeck Panorama, a four-sheet watercolour depicting a detailed view of London in the early 19th Slave Port century © ML

London was one of Britain's three busiest slave ship ports. In the 40 years before the trade was banned in 1807, it was one of the top two. In the late 1760s, for example, London sent an average of 40 slave ships to Africa each year. London-based slave ship captains traded gossip and collected their mail at the Jamaica Coffee House on St Michael's Alley, near the Bank station of the Underground today. London bankers financed West Indian slave plantations, which frequently ran short of money when the sugar price dropped, and London marine insurance firms insured slave ships. When William Wilberforce began arguing in the House of Commons against the slave trade, all four London MPs, who had strong links to the City's merchants, opposed him. 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtmlConsumers and slaves

Slave-owning planters, and merchants who dealt in slaves and slave produce, were among the richest people in 18th-century Britain. Profits from these activities helped to endow All Souls College, Oxford, with a splendid library, to build a score of banks, including Barclays, and to finance the experiments of James Watt, inventor of the first really efficient steam engine.
GREAT BRITAIN Wales is one of the four parts of the
United Kingdom (along with England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland). 

August 1838, ahead of schedule, making Trinidad the first British slave society to fully end slavery.[18] The government set aside £20 million for compensation of slave owners for their "property" across the Empire, but it did not offer the former slaves compensation or reparations.[19]

UK Britain

On 28 August 1833, the Slavery Abolition Act was given Royal Assent, which paved the way for the abolition of slavery within the British Empire and its colonies. On 1 August 1834, all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but they were indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system that meant gradual abolition: the first set of apprenticeships came to an end on 1 August 1838, while the final apprenticeships were scheduled to cease on 1 August 1840, six years later.
On 1 August 1834, as the Governor in Port of Spain, Trinidad addressed an audience about the new laws, the mostly elderly, unarmed slaves began chanting: "Pas de six ans. Point de six ans" ("Not six years. No six years"), drowning out his voice. Peaceful protests continued until the government passed a resolution to abolish apprenticeship and the slaves gained de facto freedom. Full emancipation for all slaves was legally granted on 1 August 1838, ahead of schedule, making Trinidad the first British slave society to fully end slavery.[18] The government set aside £20 million for compensation of slave owners for their "property" across the Empire, but it did not offer the former slaves compensation or reparations.[19]

Britain's triumph

Brazil was the most important defector from this system, failing to enforce its own treaty obligations. Britain used naval power — including entry into Brazilian territorial waters and the destruction of Brazilian ships — to compel Brazil to change its policies.
Britain's commitment to ending international commerce in human beings triumphed over non-intervention.        

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A X B + C ; C /A=B; C/B = C Relativity

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