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Friday, July 5, 2013

Mother of George Zimmerman List of American-African Inventions

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List of African-American inventors and scientists

Aldrin Apollo 11.jpg
Science and technology
in the United States
African-American contributions

This list of African-American inventors and scientists attempts to document many of the African Americans who have invented a multitude of items or made discoveries in the course of their lives. These have ranged from practical everyday devices to applications and scientific discoveries in diverse fields, including physics, biology, mathematics, plus the medical, nuclear and space sciences.

Ammons, Virgie1989–InventorFireplace Damper[5][6]
Amos, Harold1918–2003MicrobiologistFirst African-American department chair at Harvard Medical School[7]
Alcorn, George Edward, Jr.1940–Physicist
Invented a method of fabricating an imaging X-ray spectrometer[8][9]
Bailey, L.C.1890–1976InventorWind Powered Clothes Dryer.[10]
Ball, Alice Augusta1892–1916ChemistExtracted chaulmoogra oil for the treatment of Hansen's disease (leprosy).[11]
Banneker, Benjamin1731–1806Mathematician
Wooden clock (1753). Assisted in survey of the original boundaries of the District of Columbia (1791). Authored almanac and ephemeris (1792–1797)[12]
Banyaga, Augustin1947-MathematicianWork on diffeomorphisms and symplectomorphisms[13]
Janet Bashen1957–Inventor
First African-American woman to receive a patent for a web-based software invention. The invention, LinkLine, is an Equal Employment Opportunity case management and tracking software.[14]
Bauer, James A.1986–InventorCoin changing machine
Bath, Patricia1942–OphthalmologistFirst African-American female physician to receive a patent for a medical invention. Inventions relate to cataract surgery and include the Laserphaco Probe, which revolutionized the industry in the 1980s, and an ultrasound technique for treatment.
Beard, Andrew1849–1921Farmer
Railroad worker
Jenny Coupler improvements

Invented the car device#594,059 dated November 23, 1897

Rotary engine patent #478,271 dated July 5, 1892

Bell, Earl S.1977–Inventor
Industrial Designer
Invented Chair With Sliding Skin (2004), and the Quantitative Display Apparatus (2005)

Benjamin, Miriam18xx–1969Inventor
Invented "Gong and Signal Chair for Hotels". Second African-American woman to receive a patent.
Berry, Leonidas1902–1995GastroenterologistGastroscope pioneer
Bharucha-Reid, Albert T.1927–1985Mathematician
Probability theory and Markov chain theorist
Black, Keith1957–NeurosurgeonBrain tumor surgery and research
Blackwell, David1919–2010Mathematician
First proposed the Blackwell channel model used in coding theory and information theory; one of the eponyms of the Rao-Blackwell theorem, which is a process that significantly improves crude statistical estimators.
Blair, Henry1807–1860InventorSecond black inventor to issue a patent
Invented early spark plug

Boahen, Kwabena19xx–BioengineerSilicon retina able to process images in the same manner as a living retina
Boone, Sarah18xx–1900
[Note 1]
InventorIroning board allowing sleeves of women's garments to be ironed more easily
Bowman, James1923–PhysicianPathologist and geneticist; Professor Emeritus Pritzker School of Medicine; first tenured African-American professor at the University of Chicago Division of Biological Sciences.
Boykin, Otis1920–1982Inventor
Artificial heart pacemaker control unit.
Brady, St. Elmo1884–1966ChemistPublished three scholarly abstracts in Science and also collaborated on a paper published in Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
Branson, Herman1914–1995Physicist
Protein structure research
Brooks, Charles1865– ?Inventor[citation needed]Street sweeper truck and a type of paper punch[citation needed]
Brooks, Phil19xx–Inventor[citation needed]First U.S. Patent for a disposable syringe[citation needed]
Henry Brown1832– ?InventorInvented fire safe
Burr, John Albert18xx– ?Inventor[citation needed]Rotary-blade lawn mower patent[citation needed]
Cardozo, P. William1905–1962PediatricianSickle cell anemia studies. In October 1937, he published "Immunologic Studies in Sickle Cell Anemia" in the Archives of Internal Medicine; many of the findings are still valid today.
Carson, Ben1951–Pediatric NeurosurgeonPediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins University
First surgeon to successfully separate craniopagus twins

Carver, George Washington1865–1943Botanical researcherDiscovered hundreds of uses for previously useless vegetables and fruits, principally the peanut
Chappelle, Emmett1925–Scientist and researcherValuable contributions to several fields: medicinebiologyfood science, and astrochemistry
Clark, Mamie1914–2005Psychologist
Clark, Kenneth1917–1983PsychologistFirst Black president of the American Psychological Association
Crosthwait, David, Jr.1898–1976Research engineerHeatingventilation, and air conditioning.
Received some 40 U.S. patents relating to HVAC systems.
Dean, Mark1957–Computer scientistLed the team that developed the ISA bus, and led the design team responsible for creating the first one-gigahertz computer processor chip.
Daly, Marie Maynard1921–First black American woman with a Ph.D. in chemistry.
Drew, Charles1904–1950Medical researcher
Easley, Annie1933–Computer scientistWork at the Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Ejeta, Gebisa1950-GeneticistWon the World Food Prize in 2009 for his major contributions in the production of sorghum.
Ejigu, Kitaw1948–2006Systems engineer

Ellis, Skip (Clarence)1943–Computer scientistFirst African American with a Ph.D. in Computer Science
Software inventor including OfficeTalk at Xerox PARC

Ezerioha, Bisi1972–Automotive engineerDrag racing engineer and driver
Ferguson, Lloyd Noel1918–2011Chemist
Chemistry doctorate, first received (1943, University of California, Berkeley)
Fryer, Roland G., Jr.1977–Economist
Social scientist
Inequality studies
Gates, Sylvester James1950–Theoretical physicistWork on supersymmetrysupergravity, and superstring theory
Goode, Sarah E.1850s–1905InventorCabinet bed invention
First African-American woman to receive a patent in the United States

Graves, Joseph L.19xx–Evolutionary biologist
Greenaugh, Kevin1956–Nuclear engineer
Griffin, Bessie Blount1914–2009Physical therapist
Amputee self-feeding device
Hall, Lloyd1894–1971Chemist
Haile, Sossina M.1966-EngineerWork on fuel cells
Harris, James A.1932– ?Co-discovered Rutherfordium (element 104) and Hafnium (element 105) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory
Hawkins, Walter Lincoln1911–1992ScientistInventor at Bell Laboratories
Hodge, John E.1914–1996Chemist
Holley, Kerrie19xx–Research computer scientist at IBMCo-creator of Service-Oriented Modeling and Architecture, SOMA and the Service Integration Maturity Model (SIMM)
Jarvis, Erich19xx–NeurobiologistDuke University neuroscience bird songs studies.
Johnson, Isaac18xx- ?InventorHeld patent for improvements to the bicycle frame, specifically so it could be taken apart for compact storage.
Johnson, Lonnie1949–Mechanical engineerNuclear engineer
Invented Super Soaker while researching thermal energy transfer engines; worked with NASA. Holder of over 80 patents
Jones, Frederick McKinley1893–1961InventorInvented refrigerated truck systems
Julian, Percy1899–1975ChemistFirst to synthesize the natural product physostigmine; earned 130 chemical patents; lauded for humanitarian achievements.
Just, Ernest1883–1941Woods Hole Marine Biology Institute BiologistProvided basic and initial descriptions of the structure-function-property relationship of the plasma membrane of biological cells.
Kittles, Rick1967–GeneticistWork in tracing the ancestry of African Americans via DNA testing
Kountz, Samuel L.1930–1981Transplant surgeon
Organ transplantation pioneer, particularly renal transplant research and surgery.
Author or co-author of 172 articles in scientific publications.

Latimer, Lewis1848–1928Inventor
Expert witness
Worked as a draftsman for both Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison. He became a member of Edison's Pioneers and served as an expert witness in many light bulb litigation lawsuits.
Lawson, Jerry1940–2011Computer engineerDesigner of Fairchild Channel F, the first programmable ROM cartridge-based video game console
Lee, Raphael1949–Surgeon
Biomedical engineer[citation needed]
Paul and Aileen Russell Professor, Pritzker School of Medicine; MacArthur Fellow, Searle Scholar, Founder and Chairman, Avocet Polymer Technologies, Inc.; Founder and Chairman, Renacyte BioMolecular Technologies, Inc; Discovered use of surfactant copolymers as molecular chaperones to augment endogenous injury repair mechanisms of living cells. Holder of many patents covering scar treatment therapies, tissue engineered ligaments, brain trauma therapies, protective garments.[citation needed]
Matzeliger, Jan1852–1889InventorShoe assembly Machine
McBay, Henry1914–1995Chemist
McCoy, Elijah1844–1929InventorInvented a version of the automatic lubricator for steam engines.
McLurkin, James1972-Roboticist
Montgomery, Benjamin1819–1877InventorDesigned a steam operated propeller to provide propulsion to boats in shallow water
Morgan, Garrett1877–1963InventorInvented the gas mask
Ogbu, John Uzo1939–2003AnthropologistEthnic studies in education and economics
Oyekan, Soni1946–Chemical engineer
Poindexter, Hildrus1901–1987Bacteriologist
Work on the epidemiology of tropical diseases including malaria
Petters, Arlie1964–PhysicistWork on the mathematical physics of gravitational lensing
Quarterman, Lloyd Albert1918-1982Scientist
Fluoride Chemist
Manhattan Project, worked with Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi
Renfroe, Earl1907–2000Orthodontist
Rillieux, Norbert1806–1894Engineer
Inventor of the multiple-effect evaporator
Russell, Jesse1948–Engineer
Wireless communications engineer
Sammons, Walter1890-1973InventorPatent for hot comb
Sowell, Thomas1930–Economist
Social scientist
Economist, social theorist and political philosopher
Steele, Claude1946–Psychologist
Social scientist
Stereotype threat studies
Stiff, Lee1941–MathematicianPresident of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics from 2000 to 2002
Temple, Lewis1800–1854InventorBlacksmithAbolitionistInventor of the toggling whaling harpoon head.
Thomas, Vivien1910–1985Surgical technicianBlue baby syndrome treatment in the 1940s
Tyree, Bernadette19xx–Biochemist[citation needed]Program Director at National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases[citation needed]
Tyson, Neil deGrasse1958–AstronomerResearcher and popular educator in astronomy and the sciences
Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.1936–2001AstronomerDeveloped normal incidence multilayer XUV telescopes to photograph the solar corona
Walker, C. J.1867–1919Inventor[citation needed]Created black cosmetic products.
Washington, Warren M.1936–Atmospheric scientistFormer chair of the National Science Board
West, James E.1931–Acoustician
Co-developed the foil electret microphone
Wilkins, J. Ernest, Jr.1923–2011Mathematician
Nuclear scientist
Entered University of Chicago at age 13, PhD at 19, worked on the Manhattan Project, wrote over 100 scientific papers, helped recruit minorities into the sciences.
Williams, Daniel1856–1931SurgerianPerformed the first successful open-heart surgery in the United States
Williams, Scott W.1943–Mathematician
Williams, Walter E.1936–Economist
Social scientist

Woods, Granville1856–1910InventorInvented the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph
Wright, Louis T.1891–1952SurgeonLed team that first used Aureomycin as a treatment on humans
Young, Roger Arliner1899–1964ZoologistFirst African-American woman to receive a doctorate degree in zoology

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